Biomass, Waste to Energy
It is a stark fact that our requirements for the production of energy are increasing relentlessly. Wastes such as biomass from sorted municipal waste or clinical waste provide the ideal solution for the production of energy either by the production of charcoal, its reduction to ash or the production of electricity for on-site use or export.
Waste generation and its management is an ongoing requirement that needs ever sophisticated techniques to ensure that a minimum amount of environmental damage is generated. The ideal solution is to consider waste material not as a problem but as an opportunity to reincorporate it usefully into the economy. The circular economy is here and waste and its management is at its heart.
Where simple waste disposal is required, the Pyroclast® is a perfect solution. This system is ideal for converting biomass to energy by using the ancient technique of pyrolysis of municipal solid. Being mounted into a standard ISO container, the Pyroclast® may be immediately transported to site and put to work with the minimum of site works. It is capable of operating twenty-four hours a day, taking waste and producing clean ash, subject to the feed-stock being traditional municipal solid waste. Where required, the product may be carbon char. Carbon char is a sought after soil conditioner, as well as a means to reduce carbon (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere.
Waste management has developed to such an extent that the amount of waste material that is being processed is often too much to be dealt with by traditional mechanisms. Large scale incineration, the solution par-exellence for the treatment of waste, is often not feasible simply because of the cost or the negative press.
Pyrolysis and gasification is quickly becoming a viable alternative to the treatment of waste, especially on a smaller scale where space and budget is a consideration.
Of course, the feedstock dictates the technology to be used but, in order to properly design a plant, a developer must fully understand the raw material, its conditions of production, storage and disposal. Once understood, technological solutions can be designed to tailor the needs of the site.
Where simple waste disposal is required, the Pyroclast® is an ideal solution. Being mounted into a standard ISO container it can be immediately transported to site and put to work with the minimum of site works. It is capable of operating twenty-four hours a day, taking waste and producing a clean ash, subject to the feed-stock being traditional municipal solid waste.
Where required carbon char, a good soil conditioner as well as means to reduce carbon (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere, can be produced.
The Pyroclast® is available in two capacities: 12 tonnes and 24 tonnes per day and multiple modules can be employed for larger throughputs. With a typical municipal solid waste this would convert to between 0.25 MW and 1 MW across the two sizes. A drier waste with a high plastic content would be close to the maximum with the larger unit. Each location is different and needs to be assessed individually.
A Technological Approach
Front-end drying is not an essential requirement. Drying will take place within the pyrolyser. However, a frontend dryer will increase the capacity of a single unit and may be added as an option.
Wet biomass feed-stocks are initially shredded down to an acceptable maximum size. They are then passed into the pyrolyser through a compacting-feed screw.
Pyrogas and syngas are immediately destroyed in a high-temperature thermal oxidiser, ensuring maximum environmental protection. Heat that is not used is dumped.
The Pyroclast is primarily designed to address waste disposal. However, it may also produce energy
Options for Deployment
The Pyroclast may also be installed into buildings for long-term applications, such as for use as the primary disposal method in small communities. It may be run in extended operation campaigns, operated on a continuous basis or simple as and when required.
The output from this unit is ash and heat. For most biomass and municipal solid waste applications, the ash is non-toxic and may be used in various industries as a bulking agent. Heat may be used or dumped. Ideally, it should be employed but this is not always commercially practical.
Where preferred, the gasification of carbon char may be omitted. This will result in the production of a carbon char which can be used to condition soil, as depicted in the Sankey Diagram below.
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